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New Nuclear Policy-Planning Council

Costings for Direct Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel

The following tables and diagrams are taken from calculations of cost comparisons for four scenarios for dealing with spent nuclear fuel. The costings were made by the New Nuclear Policy-Planning Council Secretariat. The New Nuclear Policy-Planning Council was established within the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan to consider the new Long-Term Nuclear Program. It has been holding deliberations since June 2004 and handed down an interim report dealing with Japan's reprocessing policy on 12 November 2004.

Table 1: Major Parameters

Table 2a is for cases where the canisters are buried vertically. These cases were used in the costing of the four scenarios.

Table 2b is for cases where the canisters are buried horizontally. These cases were not used in the costing of the four scenarios.

Table 3: Area of Disposal Site and Cost of Disposal

Table 4: Disposal Schedule

Table 5: Unit Cost of Management and Disposal

Table 6: Results of Calculation of Cost of Fuel Cycle

(Note 1: Due to rounding to the first decimal place, in some places the totals (subtotals) in these tables don't add up.
Note 2: In this calculation of the cost of disposal of spent fuel, several uncertainties are not taken into account. It is therefore appropriate to assume that the actual range of uncertainty in costs is greater than that shown in these calculations.)

Diagram 1: costs arising year by year for burial in hard rock

Diagram 2: costs arising year by year for burial in soft rock


Table 1: Major Parameters

Total quantity disposed of
32,000 tons
800 (tons/year for 40 years)
Average burn-up of spent fuel
45,000 MWd/t
Disposal container
19cm thick carbon steel
Number of spent fuel assemblies per container
4 assemblies or 2 assemblies
(based on PWR)
Disposal depth
soft rock 500m (with supports)
hard rock 1000m (without supports)
Bentonite thickness
70 cm
Disposal container surface temperature
less than or equal to 900C
Ground surface temperature
150C
Rate of ground temperature increase
+30C/100m


Table 2a: Case by Case Calculation of Cost of (Vertical) Disposal of Spent Fuel (figures in billion yen)

Cost Headings

Soft Rock

Hard Rock

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

Case 1

Case 2

2 fuel assemblies per canister, buried vertically

4 fuel assemblies per canister, buried vertically

2 fuel assemblies per canister, buried vertically at 2 sites

2 fuel assemblies per canister, buried vertically

2 fuel assemblies per canister, buried vertically at 2 sites

Technological Development

214.3

214.3

214.3

213.8

213.8

Survey and Site Acquisition

240.3

224.7

284.8

247.9

299.3

Design and Construction

3,499.1

2,500.8

4,054.6

1,556.2

2,192

Above Ground Facilities

Below Ground Facilities

Above Ground Equipment

Below Ground Equipment

Other

134.9

2,730.3

453.3

137.8

42.9

111.1

1,813.1

417.7

116.1

42.9

156.5

2,983.8

623.2

212.8

78.4

99.8

589.6

504.3

319.6

42.9

118.9

668.1

728.1

598.4

78.4

Operations

1,966.7

1,486.2

2,247.2

1,803.7

2,257.9

Closing and Dismantling

215.6

243

365.4

241.2

360

Monitoring

119

119

237.9

119

237.9

Project Management

1,176.2

979.9

1,653.4

919.4

1,469.7

Consumption Tax

333.1

257.9

405

227.6

312.8

Subtotal

7,800.4

6,025.9

9,462.8

5,328.7

7,343.5

Tax for handling of spent fuel materials etc.

761.6

761.6

761.6

761.6

761.6

Total

8,562

6,787.5

10,224.4

6,090.3

8,101.1

Table 2b: Supplementary Case by Case Calculation of Cost of (Horizontal) Disposal of Spent Fuel (figures in billion yen)

Cost Headings

Soft Rock

Hard Rock

Supplementary Case 1

Supplementary Case 2

Supplementary Case 1

2 fuel assemblies per canister, buried horizontally

4 fuel assemblies per canister, buried horizontally

2 fuel assemblies per canister, buried horizontally

Technological Development

214.3

214.3

213.8

Survey and Site Acquisition

199.6

224

244.6

Design and Construction

1,114.9

1,041.8

1,148.3

Above Ground Facilities

Below Ground Facilities

Above Ground Equipment

Below Ground Equipment

Other

74.9

325.9

435.8

235.4

42.9

73.3

320.9

407.1

197.6

42.9

73.8

120.7

486.3

424.6

42.9

Operations

1,385.8

1,150.5

1,555.9

Closing and Dismantling

201.7

203.8

219.3

Monitoring

119

119

119

Project Management

672.9

715.8

848.7

Consumption Tax

180.3

166.2

193.6

Subtotal

4,088.6

3,835.4

4,543

Tax for handling of spent fuel materials etc.

761.6

761.6

761.6

Total

4,850.2

4,597

5,304.6


Table 3: Area of Disposal Site and Cost of Disposal

Area and Cost Headings
Soft Rock
Hard Rock
2 fuel assemblies per canister,
buried vertically (2 sites)
2 fuel assemblies per canister,
buried vertically
Area of disposal site (km2)
18.8
11.5
Total length of main shafts (km)
88
43
Total length of disposal shafts (km)
290
216
Total cost (billion yen)
9,462.8
5,328.7
Cost with 2% discount rate (billion yen)
7,507.5
4,226.8
Unit cost with 2% discount rate
(million yen/ton)
336
189


Table 4: Disposal Schedule

Time of commencing disposal
35 years after establishment of implementing organization
Time of completing disposal
100 years after commencing disposal
Period for monitoring after completion
300 years after closing disposal site


Table 5: Unit Cost of Management and Disposal (2% discount rate)
Total period of operation (units: million yen/ton)

Cost Headings
Reprocessing Case
Direct Disposal Case
Transport of spent fuel to reprocessing plant
18
-
Reprocessing
253
-
Transport of spent fuel to interim storage facility
16
16
Interim storage
54
54
Storage of high level waste (HLW)
24
-
Transport of HLW
3
-
(Disposal of HLW) or direct disposal of spent fuel
(0.12 yen/kWh)
189 - 336
Management and storage of TRU waste
25
-
Diposal of TRU waste (by deep geological disposal)
29
-
Diposal of TRU waste (by means other than deep
geological disposal)
10
-
Fabrication of MOX fuel
259
-
Decommissioning of reprocessing plant
27
-


Table 6: Results of Calculation of Cost of Fuel Cycle (yen/kWh)

Cost Headings Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4
Front End Uranium fuel
0.57
0.57
0.61
0.61
MOX fuel
0.07
0.05
-
0.00
Back End Reprocessing
0.63
0.42
-
0.16
HLW storage, transport and disposal
0.16
0.10
-
0.06
TRU waste management, storage and disposal
0.11
0.07
-
0.03
Intermediate storage of spent fuel
0.04
0.06
0.14
0.13
Direct disposal of spent fuel
-
0.12 - 0.21
0.19 - 0.32
0.09 - 0.16
Total
1.60
1.4 - 1.5
0.9 - 1.1
1.1 - 1.2
Electricity generation cost
5.20
5.0 - 5.1
4.5 - 4.7
4.7 - 4.8


Diagram 1: costs arising year by year for burial in hard rock

Diagram 2: costs arising year by year for burial in soft rock

Evaluation Criteria

Evaluation of four scenarios

Interim Report

Previously published costs of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

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